French revolution started in 1789. The ideas of the Enlightenment were beginning to make the … By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, A Narrative History of the French Revolution - Contents, The French Revolution, Its Outcome, and Legacy, French Revolution Timeline: 6 Phases of Revolution, The Directory, Consulate & End of the French Revolution 1795 - 1802, The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Biography of King Louis XVI, Deposed in the French Revolution, The Estates General and the French Revolution, Life of John Jay, Founding Father and Supreme Court Chief Justice, A History of the Women's March on Versailles, The French Revolution: The 1780s Crisis and the Causes of Revolution, French Revolution Timeline: 1795 to 1799 (The Directory), M.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University, B.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University. 1 (Winter 2000): 163–96; the essays collected in the special issue “’89: Then and Now,” French Historical Studies 32, no. The Assembly began to divide into different political parties. 65 terms. They, and the Director-General of Finances, Jacques Necker, thought the Church and the Nobility ought to be taxed more. The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte took power in November 1799. Get The French Revolution, History Chapter Notes, Questions & Answers, Video Lessons, Practice Test and more for CBSE Class 10 at TopperLearning. / When did the French revolution occurs? ADVERTISEMENTS: Montesquieu outright rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the kings and he suggested that the king should be selected by the will of the people. StephenCaniglia9. They were overjoyed. It was the most powerful group in France. Colonized people reworked the idea of freedom from bandage into their movements to create a sovereign nation state. The first acts of the newly named NationalConvention were the abolition of the monarchy and the declarationof France as a republic. This included Honoré Mirabeau and Lafayette. JordanLofting. Prisoners were taken from the prisons to “Madame Guillotine” (a nickname for the guillotine) in an open wooden cart called the tumbrel. The other nearly 98% of the population was in the Third Estate. ), The French Revolution: Recent Debates and New Controversies (London, 1998), pp. Marquis de Lafayette - Marquis de Lafayette - The French Revolution: During the next five years, Lafayette became a leader of the liberal aristocrats (dubbed the Fayettistes) and an outspoken advocate of religious toleration and the abolition of the slave trade. It is possible that up to 40,000 people died in prison or were killed during the Reign of Terror. By July 1794, people began to turn against Maximilien de Robespierre. Ans. 3. The French Revolution was a revolution in France from 1789 to 1799. They put in new, radical laws including a new Republican Calendar with new months and new ten-day weeks. According to records, 16,594 people were executed with the guillotine. Parish and the countryside. Because so many of the members of the Assembly were left-wing, they did not like this. The French Revolution. It was decided that the members would keep working until they had a constitution. 3. A day later, Robespierre and many of his supporters in the Paris Commune were sentenced to death by guillotine without any kind of trial. The president of the National Assembly at the time of the Tennis Court Oath, Jean-Sylvain Bailly, became mayor of the city. In March, they rose up against the government in a revolt. / When did the French revolution occurs? Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. Ans. A second party was the Royalist democrats (monarchists) which wanted to create a system like the constitutional monarchy of Britain, where the king would still be a part of the government. This revolution put forward the ideas of liberty, fraternity, and equality. Many French were worried that the émigrés would cause trouble in foreign countries against France. Many problems in France led up to the Revolution: Before the Revolution, France was divided into three Estates. The result of the French Revolution was the end of the monarchy. The king would have to take an oath to the state. They both planned to invade. However, the Directors were disliked by the people - especially the Jacobins, who wanted a republic, and the royalists, who wanted a new King. Rapid population growth and restrictions caused by the inability to adequately finance government debt resulted in economic depression, unemployment and high food prices. B. The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts. Many clergy, as well as the Pope, Pius VI, did not like these changes. Philosophes such as Diderot, Rousseau, […] The war with Austria and Prussia was causing the state to have money problems. but It was independently published in the magazine The Friend on October 26, 1809, edited by Coleridge. The people revolted against the cruel regime of monarchy. The National Assembly of the French Revolution. Contact us on below numbers. The people revolted against the cruel regime of monarchy. The main causes of French revolution were due to worsen of economic system due to the spending of the monarchy, the shortage of food, the power of the monarchy. They did not want revolutions in their own countries. Republican leaders Georges Danton and Camille Desmoulins came and gave speeches. NCERT Solutions for Social Science, Chapter 1 – The French Revolution Other than Exercise Questions, we have included Activity Questions and Answers too from NCERT Books to make students understand History subject for Class 9 well. The economic condition of France became poor due to the foreign wars of Louis XIV, the seven years War of Louis XV and other expensive wars. Storming the Bastille on July 14 th 1789, which some scholars consider the start of the Revolution, exhibits erratic and violent behavior. Undoubtedly, the French Revolution sprang from a combination of intellectual ferment and material grievances. Liberty or freedom was with regard to 18 the century, liberty meant freedom from all sorts of torture and abuse. Education Franchise × Contact Us. They happened because of the French Revolution. Louis XVI had borrowed to help American Revolutionaries. On June 20, they took the Tennis Court Oath, where they promised to work until they had created a new constitution for France. Phase One of the French Revolution Establishment of a Constitutional Monarch 1789-92. The First Estate was the Clergy (the church). The Legislative Assembly had lost all its power. Marie Antoinette, the Queen, was also executed on the sixteenth of October. The culture was also affected, at least in the short term, with the revolution permeating every creative endeavor. The French Revolution was a period in France when the people overthrew the monarchy and took control of the government. They wanted to arrest many Girondin members of the National Convention. Over the next few years, this helped the Republican army push back the attacking Austrians, Prussians, British, and Spanish. SPECIFIC EVENTS LEADING TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. In May 1789, the Estates-General was called by King Louis in order to deal with the money problems of the country. A republican at heart, Lafayette nonetheless remained an aristocrat with strong ties to many members of the ruling royal family. Together, on 25 July, they wrote the Brunswick Manifesto, promising that if the royal family was not hurt, no civilians would be hurt in the invasion. Negative Impact of the French Revolution. The series of events started by the middle class shook the upper classes. There are also instances at the brink of Revolution and in the beginning that implied that there would be a violent element to this movement. Causes . The Reign of Terror lasted from the spring of 1793 to the spring of 1794. The French Revolution created turmoil across the whole of Europe, via a series of events which continue to captivate and inspire massive debate. Now that the terror was over, the National Convention started to make a new Constitution, called the Constitution of the Year III. All of our attempts to find an explanation in terms of social groups or classes, or particular segments of society becoming powerfully activated, have … He supported the French Revolution wholeheartedly. The slogan of the French Revolution was equality, liberty and fraternity had a great charm in itself. They made the army bigger and changed the officers to people who were better soldiers. The French Revolution Short Questions Class 9 History Chapter 1. However, when they talked to the other Estates, they could not agree. It caused the stop of the monarchy and plenty of wars. He and his Revolutionary Tribunal had killed 1,300 people in six weeks. In 1790, all special taxes and powers of the Church were cancelled. (Thanks, Quora content review) It’s 1789 and France is broke. The royal family was brought back to Paris. On 10 June 1789, they started the National Assembly. The Third Estate thought this could be improved by giving members of the Estates-General a vote each. The Jacobins had taken power. Wordsworth was a freedom-loving person. Kids learn about the glossary and terms of the French Revolution including the French Estates, gabelle, Jacobins, Girondins, sans-culottes, the Directory, Committee of Public Safety, and more. In June 1793, the Jacobins began to take power. The other 345 members were independent, but they voted most often with the left wing. The revolution began on 14th July, 1789 with the storming of the fortress-prison, the Bastille. Although the constitution of 1793 had given all men in France a vote, in this constitution only people with a certain amount of property could vote. Palace of Louis XIV; created financial issues; allowed nobles to live there so they would behave. French revolution started in 1789. A. Many members, especially the nobles, wanted a senate or a second upper house. Only the king was allowed to do this. As such, there is a vast range of literature on the topic, much of it involving specific methodologies and approaches. It began on 14th of June 14th 1789 when the Bastille, a symbol of the power of the French monarchy, was stormed. In 1789 the people of France began the French Revolution. The first 2 estates sent 300 representatives each, while 3 rd one has 600 members who were more prosperous & educated. French Government was deeply in debt. Legacy of French Revolution. This republic did not last, but France never returned to its old, unequal form of society. By the afternoon, the people had broken into the Bastille and released the seven prisoners being held there. The Legislative Assembly held an emergency meeting. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the 19th and 20th centuries. With the Legislative Assembly in place, the problems did not go away. King Louis XVI was executed in 1793. Also: The Russian Revolution and Bolshevik Victory. 136 were Girondins and Jacobins, left-wing liberal republicans who did not want a king. Since the First and Second Estates would not listen, The Third Estate decided to break away and start their own assembly where every member would get a vote. It was not only the nobility who died in the Reign of Terror. Things were much more stable under the Directory than they had been before. The French Revolution mostly consisted of a bloody and violent time throughout France, in 1789 to 1799. The Catholic Church, Italy, Germany, France 1864-1914 by Helmreich./ The result of the French Revolution was the end of the monarchy. The National Assembly began to make lots of changes. Revolutionaries killed hundreds for refusing the oath. They met at the royal Palace of Versailles. For more than two centuries after the French Revolution began, the guillotine remained a legal form of execution in France. The war lasted until 1796. A rare few continue to the restoration of the monarchy in 1814. The revolution brought down their king and made France a republic—a country ruled by the people. The revolution brought down their king and made France a republic—a country ruled by the people. Historians generally view the underlying causes of the French Revolution as driven by the failure of the Ancien Régime to respond to increasing social and economic inequality. For the one in 1830, see, Wikipedia:How to write Simple English pages, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_Revolution&oldid=7076113, All Wikipedia articles written in British English, Pages needing to be simplified from September 2014, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, Establishment of a secular and democratic republic that became increasingly authoritarian and militaristic, The first and the second estate i.e., the Clergy and the Nobility, enjoyed all the privileges and rights but the. It was a time of up heal, where the monarchy was overthrown and the rights of equality, fraternity and liberty came into action. 1 Historians have always been aware of widespread resistance to the Revolution. France needed a new government. On 27 July, the National Convention and the Committee of Public Safety turned against him. The French Revolution was a revolution in France from 1789 to 1799. (2) Where did the French revolution occurs? (Thanks, Quora content review) It’s 1789 and France is broke. Some people, including Jacques Pierre Brissot, did not like this. It proceeded in a back-and-forth process between revolutionary and reactionary forces. 1774. Fulfillment or Betrayal of Communism? But (with a few exceptions) they invariably characterize the rebellion in … The people were turning against King Louis XVI. General Bouille held the same views and wanted to help the king leave Paris. The king tried to stop them by closing the Salle des États meeting room, but they met in an indoor tennis court instead. This revolution put forward the ideas of liberty, fraternity, and equality. French Revolution...Poem explanation Wordsworth calls the revolution as a happy act. The French publication of Locke's Treatises in 1724 also played an important role in influencing both pre-Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary ideology. Ans. Anyone who broke the Jacobins' laws, or was even suspected of breaking their laws or working against them, could be arrested and sent to the guillotine, most without a trial. Become our. Many soldiers deserted. They fought against Great Britain, Austria and several other monarchies that were extremely popular at the time. On 20 April 1792, the Assembly voted to declare war on Austria (Holy Roman Empire). Even though the Third Estate had many more members than the other two Estates, each Estate only had one vote in the Estates-General. 26 terms. France went from a largely "feudal" state under an absolutist monarch through the French Revolution to a republic which executed the king and then to an empire under Napoleon Bonaparte. (ii) Ideas of equality and democratic spread from France to other European countries and feudalism was abolished. This first stage of the French Revolutionary Wars continued until 1797. In January 1793, the National Convention voted and found Louis XVI guilty of “conspiracy against the public liberty and the general safety.” On the twenty-first of January, the King was executed using the guillotine. The Legislative Assembly did not agree very well. One, France was poor. The National Assembly Reshapes France: The deputies of the Estates General turned themselves into a brand new representative body for France by declaring themselves a National Assembly, and they soon went to work reshaping France. They lasted from 1792 until 1802. Liberty. Parish and the countryside. Although the members of the Estates-General had only been elected for a year, the members of the Assembly had all taken the Tennis Court Oath. The French Revolution . But, representatives from … In July 1793, a Jacobin called Maximilien de Robespierre and eight other leading Jacobins set up the Committee of Public Safety. Strikes were banned. (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty" Versailes. On 27 August 1791, Leopold II of the Holy Roman Empire/Austria, Frederick William II of Prussia, and Louis XVI’s brother-in-law, Charles-Philippe wrote the Declaration of Pillnitz. The revolution came to an end when Napoleon Bonaparte got power in November 1799. The government before the revolution was called the "Ancient (old) Regime". The crowd, including the King and the royal family, took an oath of loyalty to “the nation, the law, and the king.” However, many nobles were unhappy with the revolution and were leaving the country. The 18 Brumaire marks the end of the Republican part of the French Revolution when Napeleon Bonaparte took the reign. The Brunswick Manifesto had made many people suspicious of the king. The most famous of these was the Jacobin Club, which had left-wing ideas. In France, the monarch didn’t have the power to impose taxes. 14th July 1789. 20, 1792, France started a war with Austria. Historians working on the French Revolution have a problem. The French Revolution was a period of major social upheaval that began in 1787 and ended in 1799. Recent French Revolutionary Historiography,” French Historical Studies 23, no. On 14 July 1789, the people decided to attack the Bastille prison. However, more people voted to keep having just one assembly. Dressed as servants, the royal family left Paris. 1. In addition, the ideas of the French Revolution spread to many other countries. In 1789, in the wake of early morning, the city of Paris was in a state of alarm. 12 1798 – New republics in Switzerland and Italy; an election annulled; Bonaparte invades Egypt. They were called émigrés (emigrants). This party sat on the right side. In 1804, he became Emperor. This page was last changed on 20 August 2020, at 16:22. So the French Revolution is also known as the ‘Bourgeoisie Revolution’. Originally answered: What is a summary of the French Revolution? In France at the end of the 18th century there were three estates or Social Classes. France’s money problems did not go away. Rumours spread that the King would open fire upon the citizens. The Assembly imprisoned Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette, and suspended the king from his duty. Many people with radical ideas began to form political clubs. The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of French revolution. However, it never came into power because of the trouble between the Jacobins and Girondins. (2) Where did the French revolution occurs? 2. During the next five years, Lafayette became a leader of the liberal aristocrats (dubbed the Fayettistes) and an outspoken advocate of religious toleration and the abolition of the slave trade.A republican at heart, Lafayette nonetheless remained an aristocrat with strong ties to many members of the ruling royal family. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science for History Chapter 1, The French Revolution, India […] By 7 September, 1,400 people were dead. Although the king had tried to escape, most members of the Assembly still wanted to include the king in their government rather than to have a Republic with no king at all. The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte took power in November 1799. Jacques Necker was given back his job as Director-General of Finances. The whole world was looking at the slogan. THE THREE ESTATES Before the revolution the French people were divided into three groups: The first estate: the clergy The second estate: the nobility The third estate: the common people (bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants). In 1789 the people of France began the French Revolution. On the contrary, few events have been so unanticipated as was the French Revolution. This remained in power thanks to rigging elections and purging the assemblies before being replaced, thanks to the army and a general called Napoleon Bonaparte, by a new constitution in 1799 which created three consuls to rule France. It was the first one that did not include the king and gave every man in France a vote. The Directors ignored elections that did not go the way they wanted. Soon, the King visited Paris and wore the red, white and blue (tricolor) ribbons (cockade) that the revolutionaries were wearing. Ans. They used the ongoing war and the army to keep their power. 11.1 September 4, 1797 – A republican coup d'état against the royalists. The King shared his rule with the Legislative Assembly, but had the power to stop (veto) laws he did not like. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, This article is about the revolution of 1789. Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation. The King was given a suspensive veto over laws, which meant he would only have the power to delay laws being made, not stop them. Over the heads of the History in an indoor tennis court instead against is. Declaration of Independence was a period of major social upheaval that began in 1787 and ended in 1799 family! Own countries Church, Italy, Germany, France 1864-1914 by Brunswick Manifesto had made the army bigger changed! Church were cancelled two centuries after the French Revolutionary Wars were a series of events by... 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