MPPSC Prelims and Mains Notes, MPPCS Test Series, Remote sensing: principles, electromagnetic spectrum, components and applications. In remote sensing a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum ranging from a very short wavelength (Gamma ray) to a very long wavelength (Radio wave) are used. Remote sensing can be used to study damages caused by earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods and melting of ice in polar regions. • The foundation of remote sensing technology is based on the measurement and interpretation of the patterns of EMR. 609 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<6D234F43F44E12429B0270812E020609>]/Index[597 22]/Info 596 0 R/Length 77/Prev 1041986/Root 598 0 R/Size 619/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Although, the remote sensing includes a wide array of technologies and types, but they all are based on certain common concepts with the same basic components. Electromagnetic spectrum used in remote sensing Microwave: The spectral range of near IR and short wave infrared is sometimes called the reflective infrared (0.7-3 m) because the range is more influenced by solar reflection rather than the emission from the ground surface. The important wavelength regions for remote sensing applications are mentioned in Table 28.1. The basic unit of energy for an electromagnetic wave is called a photon. Different objects return different amount of energy in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, incident upon it. There are two general types of accelerometers. Although many characteristics of EM energy are easily described by wave theory, another theory known as particle theory offers insight into how electromagnetic energy interacts with matter. The image is then interpreted to extract the informations about target. The sun, being a major source of energy, radiation and illumination, allows capturing reflected light with conventional cameras and films. The electromagnetic spectrum is the term used to describe to entire range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. The energy source illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to the target. Different Sensors are also used to measure the given-off energy or emitted energy by the target; reflected-off energy of the target; or transmitted energy from the target. There are a number of stages in a Remote Sensing process, and each of them is important for successful operation. Emission of electromagnetic radiation, or EMR (sun/self- emission), Transmission of energy from the source to the surface of the earth, as well as absorption and scattering, Interaction of EMR with the earth’s surface: reflection and emission, Transmission of energy from the surface to the remote sensor, Data transmission, processing and analysis. Electromagnetic spectrum: The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from the shorter wavelengths (including gamma and x-rays) to the longer wavelengths (including microwaves and broadcast radio waves). When solar energy strikes an object or molecules of the atmosphere/hydrosphere, many types of interaction are possible. The range of radio waves is between 30 kHz and 300 GHz in an electromagnetic spectrum. After recording of energy, the resulting set of data is transmitted to the receiving station. Progressive stages in remote sensing are as follows: At temperature above absolute zero, all objects radiate electromagnetic energy by virtue of their atomic and molecular oscillations. Principles of remote sensing. The spectrum of waves is … Ultraviolet: 3 to 400 nm X-Rays and Gamma Rays. Electromagnetic waves are energy transported through space in the form of periodic disturbances of electric and magnetic fields. Electromagnetic radiation which is reflected or emitted from an - The micron is the most commonly used unit for measuring the wavelength of electromagnetic waves. DMPQ- . The energy used in remote sensing of the earth comes from the sun. Principles of Remote Sensing - Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing, CRISP. Passive remote sensors include the following: Accelerometer—An instrument that measures acceleration (change in velocity per unit time). Remote sensing, also called earth observation, refers to obtaining information about objects or areas at the Earth’s surface without being in direct contact with the object or area. Remote sensing in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum is an example of passive (reflected) remote sensing. A portion of the sun’s radiation that is not reflected back to the sensor is absorbed by the target, raising the temperature of target material. Remote sensing uses a part or several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The amount of radiation from an object (called radiance) is influenced by both the properties of the object and the radiation hitting the object (irradiance). Remote sensing uses sensors that measure parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most passive systems used by remote sensing applications operate in the visible, infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. electron acceleration coincides with z-axis x-axis y-axis Kinks in E-field caused by electron accelerations along z-axis radiate outward as EM waves ⊥ the x-y plane. it can only exist in discrete amount. Visible and infrared wavelengths are most commonly used in remote sensing of land features, while visible light alone is normally used in the remote sensing of water bodies. Remote sensing, also called earth observation, refers to obtaining information about objects or areas at the Earth’s surface without being in direct contact with the object or area. This is done to improve the land use, natural resources management, and protection of the environment. • EMR is characterized by wavelength and frequency. RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging) is the most common device used in Microwave Remote Sensing. Spectral resolution is the number and size of bands in the electromagnetic spectrumthat a remote sensing platform can capture. Lesson #1: Remote Sensing and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Introduction/Rationale Students have seen rainbows in the sky, on a soap bubble, or even from the spray of a garden hose. Different objects return different amount of energy in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, … Electromagnetic spectrum, the entire distribution of electromagnetic radiation according to frequency or wavelength.Although all electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light in a vacuum, they do so at a wide range of frequencies, wavelengths, and photon energies. It also acts as a medium for transmitting the information from target to the sensor. [ Figure 1 - Text Version] For most purposes, the ultraviolet or UV portion of the spectrum has the shortest wavelengths which are practical for remote sensing. It records the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted by the earth’s surface. Answer 1: The most obvious source of electromagnetic energy and radiation is the sun. Passive remote sensors include the following: Accelerometer—An instrument that measures acceleration (change in velocity per unit time). Remote sensing, also called earth observation, refers to obtaining information about objects or areas at the Earth’s surface without being in direct contact with the object or area. All the components in the system work together, to measure and record the information about the target without making physical contact. Electromagnetic spectrum, the entire distribution of electromagnetic radiation according to frequency or wavelength.Although all electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light in a vacuum, they do so at a wide range of frequencies, wavelengths, and photon energies. Most sensing devices record information about an object by measuring an object’s transmission of electromagnetic energy from reflecting and radiating surfaces. Remote sensing of Earth most frequently uses energy in the visible, infrared, and microwave portions of the spectrum. The measured radiations might originate from natural sources, usually … Remote sensing is the science of acquiring information about an object or phenomena close to the earth’s surface by measuring electromagnetic radiation. Remote sensing uses a part or several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. http://lasp.colorado.edu/cassini/education/Electromagnetic%20Spectrum.htm. The sensor is a remote device to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation. On the other hand, hyperspectral platforms (e.g., Hyperion) can capture hundreds of bands on the electromagnetic spectrum. DMPQ- Give historical background of Public account committee. h�b```a``�a�``0abf@ afV�,�7 ������AS��ܙ�g,dH����|Ό��{=TMD�+���}K����ÆC?V�Dĭ���>&��9���֏w$�..H�ؒ������h�� ���������V�V� �Ѐ� ˜AP9�. Electromagnetic remote sensing Instrument addressing electromagnetic radiations are sensitive to different wavelength ranges of radiations: ranging from gamma- and X-rays, up to microwaves. EMR transmit cross space in the wave form and in the speed of light. EMR is a dynamic form of energy that propagates as wave motion at a velocity of c = 3 x 1010 cm/sec. Electromagnetic Radiation. For example, the first two Landsat satellites use a multi-spectral scanner (MSS) and captured images using four spectral bands (green, red, and two near-infrared bands). The interpretation of image can be done visually or electronically with the help of computers and image processing softwares. Abstract : Remote sensing is a technique to observe the earth surface or the atmosphere from out of space using satellites (space borne) or from the air using aircrafts (airborne). Photons According to quantum physics, the energy of an electromagnetic wave is quantized, i.e. The energy E of a photon is proportional to the wave frequency f, E = h f It can be used for updating road maps, asphalt conditions, and wetland delineation. Reading the newspaper, watching cars driving in front of you are all remote sensing activities. The room linked to this resource is not configured correctly. • EMR is a dynamic form of energy. Remote Sensing and Observation‎ > ‎Chapters‎ > ‎Electromagnetic Spectrum‎ > ‎ Atmospheric Window One important practical consequence of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter and of the detailed composition of our atmosphere is that only light in certain wavelength regions can penetrate the atmosphere well. This wavelength (or frequency) interval in the electromagnetic spectrum is commonly referred to as a band, channel or region.The major subdivision . The sun provides the initial energy source for much of the remote sensing of the Earth surface. This theory describes the EM energy as travelling in a harmonic sinusoidal fashion at the velocity of light. For most purposes, the ultraviolet or UV portion of the spectrum has the shortest … The absorbed radiation is later emitted by the material at a different wavelength. The history of remote sensing begins with photography. Remote sensing is the use of electromagnetic energy to measure the physical properties of distant objects. %%EOF Remote sensing is extensively used in India for weather forecasting. Remote sensing: principles, electromagnetic spectrum, components and applications Remote sensing, also called earth observation, refers to obtaining information about objects or areas at the Earth’s surface without being in direct contact with the object or area. 0 Detection and discrimination of objects or surface features means detecting and recording of radiant energy reflected or emitted by objects or surface material. z-axis (x-y plane) 1 kinked E-field line Instantaneous E pattern Prof. Raymond Lee; SO431; EMR basics for remote sensing The remote sensing device that we humans use to detect radiation from the sun is our eyes. Also mention the important functions performed by the committee. Atmospheric windows used for remote sensing are 0.4-1.3; 1.5-1.8; 2-2.26; 3-3.6; 4.2-5.0; 7-15.0 µm and 10 mm—10 cm wavelengths regions of electromagnetic spectrum. Most common remote sensing systems operate in one or several of the visible, infrared and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. It includes photography and geophysical surveying as well as newer techniques that use other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sensors detect and measure electromagnetic energy in different portions of the spectrum. The relationship between the above is: Electromagnetic energy radiates in accordance with the basic wave theory. Remote sensing uses a part or several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Remote Sensing is defined as the science and technology, by which the characteristics of objects of interest can be identified, measured or analyzed the characteristics without direct contact. DMPQ- “India’s remote sensing satellite system has important role in it’s development.” Elucidate. DMPQ- “The revolt of 1857 led to far-reaching changes in the system of administration and the policies of the British government.” Elucidate. At receiving station, the data is processed to a usable format, i.e., in the form of image. The energy is: It records the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted by the earth’s surface. See more ideas about remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, satellites. Feb 1, 2017 - Resources for teaching about satellites, the electromagnetic spectrum and different kinds of images used to better understand our world. The energy interaction with the target depends on the target properties and the radiation. Lesson #1: Remote Sensing and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Introduction/Rationale Students have seen rainbows in the sky, on a soap bubble, or even from the spray of a garden hose. There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. �3�A�A���I�K���|������3���zH�. Electromagnetic Waves. Published Sep 17, 1999. (Image to be added soon) Radio waves have the best use in communication … The Visible Spectrum Wavelengths of the visible region of the spectrum range from 700 nm for red light to 400 nm for violet light. Evaluate critically that American revolution brought the necessary changes in the continent. This "spectrum" is a way of talking about natural energy: from x-rays and ultra-violet light (UV), through visible light, to infrared (IR) and microwaves-- see the figure below. Remote Sensing. Electromagnetic spectrum used in remote sensing Microwave: The spectral range of near IR and short wave infrared is sometimes called the reflective infrared (0.7-3 m) because the range is more influenced by solar reflection rather than the emission from the ground surface. It records the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted by the earth’s surface. Photons, which are without mass, move at the speed of light—300,000 km/sec (186,000 miles/sec) in the form of waves analogous to the way waves propagate through the oceans. The parameters that characterize a wave motion are wavelength (λ), frequency (ν) and velocity (c). 597 0 obj <> endobj The Remote Sensing is basically a multi-disciplinary science which includes a combination of various disciplines such as optics, spectroscopy, photography, computer, electronics and telecommunication, satellite launching etc. Electromagnetic radiation and Electromagnetic spectrum. In remote sensing analysis, similarities and differences among the spectral signatures of individual pixels are used to establish a set of more general classes that describe the landscape or help identify objects of particular interest in a scene. It can be used to study deforestation, degradation of fertile lands, pollution in atmosphere, desertification, eutrophication of large water bodies and oil spillage from oil tankers. Remote sensing uses electromagnetic waves, such as IR band, Visible band, and Microwave band to sense the Earth’s surface. They should already possess an understanding that white light is the combination of all colors of the spectrum. Most passive systems used in remote sensing applications operate in the visible, infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Remote sensing: principles, electromagnetic spectrum, components and applications. %PDF-1.5 %���� Many times remote sensing will be helpful to predict the occurrence of natural hazards. 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Remote sensing is an effective tool that enables understanding of aerial and satellite images containing integrated information’s of the features on the ground such as landform, ecology, available resources and impact of human … endstream endobj startxref Other applications are in cooking food (microwave oven), in … electron acceleration coincides with z-axis x-axis y-axis Kinks in E-field caused by electron accelerations along z-axis radiate outward as EM waves ⊥ the x-y plane. Most passive systems used in remote sensing applications operate in the visible, infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Back to Spectrum. Remote sensing technologies rely on a variety of electromagnetic energy. All electromagnetic waves travel throughspace at the same speed, c = 2.99792458 x 108m/s, commonly known as … All these technologies are integrated to act as one complete system in itself, known as Remote Sensing System. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves that have wavelengths longer than infrared radiations. The basic components of remote sensing system are given below: The target is the object or material being studied. Remote sensing data is useful in obtaining up-to-date land use pattern of large areas at any given time and also monitor changes that occur from time to time. Detection and discrimination of objects or surface features means detecting and recording of radiant energy reflected or emitted by objects or surface material. In a recent paper spearheaded by my colleague Alexander Sivitskis, we use… electromagnetic spectrum –. Abstract : Remote sensing is a technique to observe the earth surface or the atmosphere from out of space using satellites (space borne) or from the air using aircrafts (airborne). There are two general types of accelerometers. (See Jensen, Remote Sensing of the Environment: An Earth Resource Perspective, Second Edition, Aerial Photography Filtration pages 97-98). They should already possess an understanding that white light is the combination of all colors of the spectrum. This information is used by regional planners and administrators to frame policy matters for all-round development of the region. It suggests that EMR is composed of many discrete units called photons/quanta. displacement (and hence no electromagnetic wave). z-axis (x-y plane) 1 kinked E-field line Instantaneous E pattern Prof. Raymond Lee; SO431; EMR basics for remote sensing displacement (and hence no electromagnetic wave). 618 0 obj <>stream Electromagnetic Spectrum. The electromagnetic radiation is the foundation for radar, which is used for guidance and remote sensing for the study of the planet Earth. h�bbd```b``��`� ,rLւH�V����"�����@���* �q=#�� �D�����0 .= The total amount of emitted radiation increases with the body’s absolute temperature and peaks at progressively shorter wavelengths. The remote sensing systems you've studied so far are sensitive to the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, wavelengths at which the magnitude of … DMPQ- Trace the popular rise of Bhakti movement in medieval India. There are several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which are useful for remote sensing. • The whole range of EMR is called spectrum. It is also used to warn people about impending cyclones. This radiation is just beyond the violet portion of the visible wavelengths, hence its name. . Humans accomplish this task with aid of eyes or by the sense of smell or hearing; so, remote sensing is day-today business for people. These sensors measure land and sea surface temperature, vegetation properties, cloud … The fundamental unit of electromagnetic phenomena is the photon, the smallest possible amount of electromagnetic energy of a particular wavelength. Remote sensing: principles, electromagnetic spectrum, components and applications. The portion of the spectrum of more recent interest to remote sensing is the microwave region from about 1 mm to 1 m. This covers the longest wavelengths used for remote sensing. The visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum is from about 400 nm to about 700 nm, while infrared wavelengths span from 700 nm to about 1 mm. Electromagnetic spectrum ranges from shorter wavelengths (gamma rays to x rays) to the longer wavelengths (microwave and radio waves). Remote sensing is also used to get the information from a remote location without being physically present in that location. The energy of photon is. Remote sensing data is helpful for updating existing geological maps, rapid preparation of lineament and tectonic maps, identifying the sites for quarrying the minerals and helpful in locating fossil fuel deposits. 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